Saturday, February 8, 2020
What is the Major Role of Police in Society - Assignment Example A democratic police force fundamentally enforces the rule of law equally among the members of the society, rather than the rule of those persons in power or with power. Police community relations function as an adjunct or as an alternative to the centralized, bureaucratic model of policing, where neutrality and efficiency are valued (Police and Democracy, 2001, n.p.). Police members are encouraged to view themselves as part of the community and help in solving the problems of the community. Community policing emphasizes the social service and order maintenance role of the police. The underlying assumption of police-community relations is that the police would be more effective in doing its duties by immersing itself in the concerns of the community and if it has the support of and inputs from the community. The justice system in the United States operates under two levels - the federal and state levels. The state justice system basically covers prosecutions of most law violations except those offenses that concern federal government employees, crimes committed across state lines and fraud involving the national government which is covered by the federal justice system. In turn, the justice system is differentiated between the liabilities involved, whether it be criminal or civil. Criminal trials happen when the government prosecutes an individual for violating the rights and security of another individual or the society as a whole. Civil trials involve the settlement of disputes between two parties. In addition to the civilian courts, there is the military justice system which has jurisdiction over offenses committed by military members. There are also a number of Native American or American Indian justice systems which settles disputes between members of various American Indian tribes. The police selection processes have a great impact on police-community relations as the system of recruitment and its purposes will affect how effective the police will be in gaining or maintaining support from the community. Recruitment of members of the police force (or the selection of the police chief for example that takes into consideration the situation of the community) would very much aid in the smooth maintenance of the police-community relationship. For example, if a community is composed mostly of black people, it makes sense to have a police force where its membership reflects the racial make-up of the community. Similarly, recruitment if it has to take consideration of police-community relations, must first look into the recruitment of immediate members of the local community, rather from the outside of the community in question. Ã
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
New Land Essay When Europeans settled in the Ã¢â¬Å"New LandÃ¢â¬ , they had hard time adapting living with the Indians. However, the Indians feared what Europeans brought such as weapons. There was a huge difference between the tribesÃ¢â¬â¢ weaponry and the European because of their powerful advances with the most progressive rifles. The flintlock rifle was a new weapon that the Indians had managed to use, which proved to be Ã¢â¬Å"too heavy, cumbersome, and inaccurate to be useful in the kind of combat characteristic of Anglo-Indian strugglesÃ¢â¬ (Brinkley 50). Later on they wanted the Europeans to behave as Ã¢â¬Å"fathersÃ¢â¬ to help them in their disputes and conflicts (Brinkley 60). Progressively, Europeans learned to fulfill some of their expectations. The Indians didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the meaning of the relationships between societies, furthermore Europeans Ã¢â¬Å"thought much more in terms of ceremony and kinshipÃ¢â¬ (Brinkley 60). The Indians were quite satisfied to form closer relationships and doing marriage ceremonies. After 1776, the balance of power between Europeans and Natives Americans loosened because of the presence of British and American (Brinkley 61). It began to weaken the strength of their relationship because it was difficult for the newer settlers to give gifts to them and the mediations (Brinkley 61). The Ã¢â¬Å"middle groundsÃ¢â¬ were destroyed replacing other constructed buildings by the Europeans. It created other conflicts that led to once again difficult to adapt. It seemed that both Native Americans and early Euro-Americans had a love-hate relationship that made their relationship so hard to establish peace and conformity. At the beginning the tribes were afraid of the advances Europeans had with their weapons, but they had the chance to be taught by them on how to use the weapons. By the time Europeans were trying to gain trust to them, Indians were in the need to be protected and to form new relationships. Thus far, they both ended up having issues one more time because Europeans were ambition to acquire more land in Tribal territory.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Birth Order and Eating Disorders I. Introduction: Individuals are pieces of a whole, called the family. The family has an undeniable influential role on each of the members of the unit, and conversely the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ influence on the family unit. With this undeniable understanding of the family, it is important to look at the relationship between those with eating disorders and birth order. Is there a correlation between birth order and the development of either anorexia nervosa or bulimia? However, birth order only scratches the surface of the relationship between eating disorders and the family unit. Looking past potential relationships between birth order and eating disorders, is there the possibility of a relationship between eating disorders and the family dynamic? Perhaps the dynamic of the shared relationship between family members, beyond sibling relationships, plays an important role in the development of either anorexia nervosa or bulimia. II. Birth order effect? Locating studies with a focus on a relationship between birth order and eating disorders is a difficult task. Little research has been conducted to look for possible correlations between rank in birth order and the development of either anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Few researchers have attempted to look for a correlation, and those that have completed studies have conflicting findings. Rowland (1970) searched for a relationship between birth order and anorexia nervosa. In his study, he found that those with anorexia nervosa were overwhelmingly the eldest children; however, his study just fell short of statistical significance. Crisp (1977) and Crisp et al. (1980) tried to duplicate his findings but failed to support Rowland. On the contrary, the two studies found an excess of later born siblings and the development of eating disorders. Findings for birth rank and anorexia have thus far proven to be inconsistent and more studies need to be conducted to determine the relevance of birth rank and anorexia. Similarly, few studies conducted have focused on birth order and bulimia. Ebert (1983) and Dolan et al. (1989) failed to find any significant deviation from expectation in the birth order of patients with bulimia. Lacey, Gowers and Bhat (1991) found that in small families, the bulimic was more likely to be the only or oldest child, however this held no statistical evidence. The second finding in the study is that bulimia is represented in all family sizes, but of particular interest is that all-female siblingships were well represented, but this too did not prove to be statistically significant. Birth Order and Eating Disorders :: Family Psychiatry Depression Essays Birth Order and Eating Disorders I. Introduction: Individuals are pieces of a whole, called the family. The family has an undeniable influential role on each of the members of the unit, and conversely the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ influence on the family unit. With this undeniable understanding of the family, it is important to look at the relationship between those with eating disorders and birth order. Is there a correlation between birth order and the development of either anorexia nervosa or bulimia? However, birth order only scratches the surface of the relationship between eating disorders and the family unit. Looking past potential relationships between birth order and eating disorders, is there the possibility of a relationship between eating disorders and the family dynamic? Perhaps the dynamic of the shared relationship between family members, beyond sibling relationships, plays an important role in the development of either anorexia nervosa or bulimia. II. Birth order effect? Locating studies with a focus on a relationship between birth order and eating disorders is a difficult task. Little research has been conducted to look for possible correlations between rank in birth order and the development of either anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Few researchers have attempted to look for a correlation, and those that have completed studies have conflicting findings. Rowland (1970) searched for a relationship between birth order and anorexia nervosa. In his study, he found that those with anorexia nervosa were overwhelmingly the eldest children; however, his study just fell short of statistical significance. Crisp (1977) and Crisp et al. (1980) tried to duplicate his findings but failed to support Rowland. On the contrary, the two studies found an excess of later born siblings and the development of eating disorders. Findings for birth rank and anorexia have thus far proven to be inconsistent and more studies need to be conducted to determine the relevance of birth rank and anorexia. Similarly, few studies conducted have focused on birth order and bulimia. Ebert (1983) and Dolan et al. (1989) failed to find any significant deviation from expectation in the birth order of patients with bulimia. Lacey, Gowers and Bhat (1991) found that in small families, the bulimic was more likely to be the only or oldest child, however this held no statistical evidence. The second finding in the study is that bulimia is represented in all family sizes, but of particular interest is that all-female siblingships were well represented, but this too did not prove to be statistically significant.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Football vs. Basketball Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Sports have always been fun and exciting for most people. It is always fun to practice and play with other people. Each and every week, millions of people tune in to watch their favorite sports, but some do not recognize the difference between one sport to another. Usually, each game has its own structure, which make it be given the name it is known for. This paper focuses on the difference between football and basketball as forms of sport. Ã Ã Ã Ã Basketball is governed by the Federation of International Basket Ball Association (FIBA). The body was created in 1932. FIBA regulates and control all matters concerning the game in the world. In contrast, the body that governs and runs soccer activities in the world was formed in 1904, which is a Federation of International Football Association (FIFA). Moreover, it organizes international soccer matches, including World cup and also approves the facilities and equipments used world wide. It also funds soccer organization for promotion of the game and generate the rules for the management of soccer all over the world. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The field of play of football is a 120 by 100 yards where it is usually marked for positioning, such as the center circle where it is used for awarding a kick off during the start of the game.. It also has a goal line, which is the shorter boundary of the field for awarding a goal kick, corner kick and a goal. It also has a penalty area where penalty kick is awarded. Generally, the field is covered by grass. On the other hand, the basketball has a playing court, which is 28meters in length and 15 meters in width. The field is supposed to be flat, hard, surface free from obstructions. Just like a football it has a center circle, but in basketball it is used for awarding a jump ball during the start of the game. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In football, the duration of play consists of two equal periods of 45minutes whereby after the first period the players are awarded a half times of 15minutes. After the second play period, if there is a tie there are awarded an extra time of two halfs of 30minutes. But the game is usually played in 90minutes. In contrast, basketball game is played in four periods of 10minutes each where the interval of 2minutes between the first and the second period is awarded, which become the first half, and third and fourth period, which form the second half. If there is a tie an extra 5minute is awarded at the end of playing time. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Taking into account the ball that is used to play football, it is supposed to weigh not less than 410-450 grams having a circumference of not more than 70centimenters and not less than 68centimenters and a pressure equal to 0.6 to 1.1atmospheres sea level. In contrast the ball that is used to play basketball should have a circumference not less than 74.9 centimeters and not more than 78 centimeters. The ball should also weigh not less than 567-650 grams, and have enough pressure. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Though both teams has players, they are totally different. In football, a match is played by two teams whereby each team consists not more than 11 players, one of whom is the goalkeeper and three substitutes may be used, which is a maximum in an official competition. Moreover, a football match may not start if either team consists of fewer than 7 players. In basketball, a team should consist of twelve registered players, but only five are supposed to play in the field of play while the others are substitutes. A basketball cannot begin if one of the team is not on the playing court with five players ready to play. Nevertheless, in a basketball match, it is a must for all the players to tuck in their shirts while in a football match, it is not a must for the players to tuck in their shirts. Also, there is no goalkeeper in a basketball match. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In basketball the ball player is required to bounce the ball repeatedly as he/she is moving with hands, this is called Ã¢â¬Å"dribblingÃ¢â¬ . In football if the ball is fumbled with legs. A fumble is the loss of possession of the ball by the player. In football the ball is not supposed to be touched by hand by the players. The goalkeeper is the only person who is supposed to touch the ball with hands, and within his or her region and guided by several rules. In contrast, basketball involves hands whereby the player uses their hands to score, throw or score a goal. When a goal is scored by a player, the player is awarded either three points, one or two points depending on the position of the scorer. Also, it is considered to be a goal if the ball wholly enters through the ring and passes through the net. However, in football, a goal is considered to be a goal, regardless of the position of the scorer as long as he or she has not committed a foul or violated t he rules of the game and the ball has passed through the goal line between the two goal posts. Nevertheless, if the referee is not able to detect who committed a foul in football the players are awarded a drop ball to continue with the game while in basketball the umpire awards a jump ball. Ã Ã Ã Ã Football and basketball have both very different play styles. Football involve full-contact sport, with tackles, blocking, and collision in every single play. In football the most common reason a player leaves the game is because of an injury. On the other hand, in basketball contact between players is prohibited. It is a non-contact sport and any contact is considered to be a foul. Football players will get many more hits in the face than basketball players. Football is more associated with brute force, strength, and speed type sport, while basketball is a skill type sport along with strength and speed. Moreover, basketball uniform consists of shirts of the same color, numbered 4-15 in the fronts and the back. In football, they wear shirts or jersey with sleeves and usually labeled on the back. Ã Ã Ã Ã Though every team has officials who rule over the game, the officials are extremely different. In football, there is the center referee, the assistant referee and the linesmen. These are the officials who overlook the ongoing of the game, rule over and directs the entire game. In basketball, there are one or two umpires who overlook the ongoing game. These people work together with an assistant scorer, a timer, 24 seconds operator who also oversees the progress of the game in the field. It has many officials who watch the ongoing match than in football team, which can be played in the presence of three officials. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Moreover, considering the technical equipment of every team, there are different equipment used during the game. During basketball matches, there must be a foul marker, which consists of 1-5, a 24 second operating device, scoreboard and a game clock. On the other hand, a football match must have a coin used to determine the team that will start the game, which is done by tossing of a coin, a whistle, a scoring card and a pencil. Ã Ã Ã Ã In conclusion, sports are always different from each other, considering the structure, players, the field and the officials of the game. It is for this reason that we see different games be played differently. The difference between football and basketball is totally different from the starting of the game, players, field, structures and so on. Also, sometimes the supports of the games differ since there are always taste and preference. References Alder, James. Ã¢â¬Å"What Are the 6 Defensive Positions in Football?Ã¢â¬ About. N.p., N.d. Web. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Basketball Positions.Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Sept. 2014. Web. 02 Oct. 2014. . Ã¢â¬Å"National Football League Regular Season.Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 09 Aug. 2014. Web. 02 Oct. 2014. . Ã¢â¬Å"The Coaching Staff in American Football.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â For Dummies. N.p., N.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2014. . Ã¢â¬Å"The Differences Between Football and Basketball.Ã¢â¬ A Sea Of Blue. N.p., N.d. Web. 09 October. 2012. . Source documentsÃ sÃ
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Three out of every four American workers describe their work as stressful. According to the Holmes-Rahe Life Events Scale, which rates levels of stress, many of the most stressful events in life are related to the workplace. Some examples are firings, business readjustments and changes in financial status, altered responsibilities, a switch to a different line of work, trouble with the boss, changes in work hours or conditions, retirement and vacations. Workplace stress costs American employers an estimated $200 billion per year in lower productivity, absenteeism, staff turnover, workers compensation, medical insurance and other stress-related expenses. However, stress may not always be a bad thing. It can stimulate creativity andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Get a large number of people together to point out the problem and you won t be seen as a trouble maker. Career and job ambiguity - a feeling of helplessness and lack of control. How can I succeed if I don t know what s expected of me or if my job here is uncertain? Stress levels are affected by vagueness within management. A lot of people think this is a lack of communication from the manager to the employee, but I feel that it is the responsibility of the employee to seek out what is expected of him or her. For example, if you get a bad evaluation or raise, simply go to your boss and ask him what you can do differently over the next year to enable you to get a better evaluation or increase in pay. No feedback - good or bad - prevents people from knowing how they are doing and whether they are meeting expectations. Stress related to this issue is typically one of management misperception as to the amount, importance, and effectiveness of feedback to employees. Whatever the cause, employees are easily stressed by lack of communication in this area. This is again something you may not have control over, but it is still a good demonstation of why a lack of communication is damaging. No appreciation - lack of recognition generates stress that endangers future efforts. Human nature requires that we demonstrate appreciation for jobs well done. Inadequate demonstration of appreciation results in lowered productivity. ThisShow MoreRelatedWorkplace Stress Among The Employee951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWorkplace Stress among the Employee in Insurance sector: A study 1. Introduction Stress is a part of daily living. It is an adaptive response. Stress occurs at the workplace when there is a mismatch between the expectations of the employee and demand of the employer. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Another leader, James Birney, was a powerful abolitionists leader and Ã¢â¬Å"he believed that political action and the power of religion were the keys to ending slavery,Ã¢â¬ and his proposal, Ã¢â¬Å"proposed measures that would allow the legislature to emancipate slaves and prohibit selling slaves brought into the state,Ã¢â¬ allowed for him to be known as, Ã¢â¬Å"one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent abolitionistsÃ¢â¬ (American ExperienceÃ¢â¬ ). James Birney was also the Liberty PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s presidential candidate during the 1840 to 1844 presidential campaign (Abolitionists). According to historical evidence, Birney and Garrison did not get along on the issue of how to best emancipate slavery, Ã¢â¬Å"BirneyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about achieving abolition using political means and moralÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Without these white and black abolitionist leaders, the fight to emancipate the slaves and the Civil War might not have happened; therefore, each leader influe nced the nation. Religion was another factor in creating and solidifying the abolitionist movement. The first religious group to reject slavery was the Quakers, Ã¢â¬Å"standing almost alone in professing that slaveholding was incompatible with Christian pietyÃ¢â¬ (McKivigan). Not long after the Quakers stand against slavery, did the northern states and the federal government take a stand, Ã¢â¬Å"federal government prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory and banned the trans-Atlantic slave trade.Ã¢â¬ (McKivigan). Out of all the states, Ã¢â¬Å"Virginia was the first territory to ban slavery within their borders,Ã¢â¬ and not long after that, Ã¢â¬Å"Pennsylvania followed suitÃ¢â¬ (American ExperienceÃ¢â¬ ). As the churches from the North and the South began to preach differently upon slavery, the churches started to reject and despise each other, Ã¢â¬Å"abolitionist ideas became increasingly prominent in Northern churches, which contributed to the regional animosity between the North and SouthÃ¢â¬ (Abolitionist Movement). Therefore, religion was an integral component to instigating the start of the Civil War. When the churches started believing that slavery was inhumane and that emancipation was greatly needed, the abolitionist cause becameShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Road to FreedomÃ¢â¬âthe Underground Railroad2714 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages where the bloody lash was not buried in the quivering flesh of a slave.... (7,p.i). Such were the conditions of the Underground Railroad. It was a fictitous railroad but served the same purpose: to transport people from one place to another. This railroad, however, was not sanctioned by any government, in fact if it had been discovered many would have died. The Underground Railroad was a huge risk. If you used it, and were caught, you could die. For some that was better than being treated